Human Insulin: I need this paper by early Thursday, 10/30/08. Instructor has been adamant in stating this is NOT a research paper! My friend also needs a paper on the same topic for the same date. We will need different writers so that the papers are different. I do not have her order number yet, but her name is Stephanie Armstrong. The instructions for the paper are as follows:
Microbiology Review Papers
What is a review paper? A review paper is a critical synthesis of research on a particular topic, a synthesis of findings rather than of ideas. Review papers help students learn about subjects that are unfamiliar to them, how to use the electronic data resources available through the Virtual Library and how to write a scientific review paper.
What is my research review supposed to focus on? Your research review should focus on primary sources, original reports on individual studies published in research journals or government reports. Rely on secondhand information as little as possible, citing these sources rarely and only use for background information about topic. Your paper must include at least 5 references from refereed scientific publications (primary sources).
How do I take notes? Use 4 x 6 cards with a single topic, issue, or cluster. Place the topic on the left top and the author’s name on right with year, reference number, pages, or vice versa. Use reference note cards for each source with full reference information and number these. Some writers use folders with papers or articles on the same subheading or single topic, highlighting important points with markers or underlining, and summarizing important points on paper. Others use the computer to summarize and jot notes, putting each subhead into a separate folder. Always put reference, author (date), and pages. To avoid plagiarizing, you need to reference 99.9% of material. Scientific reviews use very few of your own ideas. Most of the information is not common knowledge. If fellow students do not know it, then itÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s not common knowledge!
How do I present the material?
Outline or Table of Contents
Body of paper
Before you start writing, you need a tentative plan. Develop a general outline for your paper. Some students prefer to begin with a fixed outline before actually writing a rough draft, and others prefer to develop the outline after writing the rough draft. A Table of Contents can also serve as an outline for your paper. Your finished paper must have either a Table of Contents or an Outline.
Draft the paper. Take your general outline and under each topic, jot down points or issues you want to cover. Organize the subtopics. Organize your note cards or notes by category in your outline or by subtopics. Thoroughly document your paper. Whenever you refer to another authorÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s work, cite your sources using the name-year system or number system (see citing sources below). Direct quotations are rarely used in reviews. The first draft is a rough version. Write quickly and don’t edit as you compose. It may be easiest to compose on the word processor. SAVE, SAVE, SAVE! Make hard copies. Don’t just carry your paper around on a disk. Put it on a hard drive somewhere.
Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence. These can be useful for writing your conclusions and introductions that are usually written last. Make literature citations as you write.
Person: Most scientific work is written in the third person (he, she, we, they, or it) but usually not using the pronouns. The facts are stated “about the procedure” and/or “results given.” For example, “Comparative studies of _____ were observed over a period of two years.” Rarely do you find “I” or “we,” but these are acceptable.
Tense: Use the past tense when reporting your own findings and the present tense when discussing the published work of others.
Numbers: Spell out numbers less than ten, and do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Use numerals when you report statistics; give quantitative data with units of measurement; and refer to dates, times, pages, figures, and tables.
Slang or jargon: Do not use slang or jargon, such as “cutting edge,” or “a cop out.” Do not use emotions such as “beautiful,” “amazing,” “hard to imagine,” ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œfeel.” Do not use anthropomorphic statements: “Tigers feel safe when . . .”
What kind of format do I use?
General: At least 1000 words in body of paper, typed, double-spaced with 12 point font size. Margins should be 1.5″ left, 1″ top, 1″ right, 1″ bottom.
Title page: Center title about one-third down the page (18 point font size). Capitalize the first letter of each word or use all caps: for example, The Occurrence of Staphylococcal Pneumonia in Alcoholics. Center your name about 10 lines under the title (12 or 14 point font size). Center the required submission date a double space below your name (12 or 14 point font size). Center the following about a triple space below the date: Microbiology Review Paper, Your Professor.
Pagination: Number pages consecutively in the upper right hand corner, beginning with the title page (which does not have a page number but is counted as the first page).Use only Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Put the number in the upper right hand corner.
Headings: Use headings sparingly. Make them informative and concise. Center or left justify the headings, but be consistent throughout the paper. Keep headings in parallel structure (the same form) all nouns or all verb forms: Symptoms, Physiology, Infection [nouns] or Measuring Variations, Testing New Sources [verb endings the same]. Triple space before headings to give them more room and make them bold.
Revise your paper:
Consider the paper as a whole. Check for content, structure, and flow. Is the material in logical order? Does it have a train of thought? Is it unfolding a story? Is it complete and consistent?
Check individual paragraphs. Is the topic sentence appropriate? Is the paragraph dealing with the topic sentence? Use transitions to connect paragraphs.
Proofread. Proofread after you spell-check for if/of, on/no, to/too. Proofread for literature citations. Are all listed? Are any unused? Use the ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œkey word” search on your paper to check for consistency in abbreviations and for scientific nomenclature: for example, fig. vs. figure, Staphylococcus aureus vs. Staphylococcus aureus. Spell Check, Spell Check, Spell Check.
The reference section contains only sources that have been referred to in the paper. Bibliographies are not part of a scientific paper. The reference section is titled Literature Cited or References Cited. Scientists rarely use footnotes or endnotes to acknowledge sources. Citations are inserted directly in the text. Citations may be in text either by giving the last name of the author(s) and publication date (name-year system) or by referring to each source by a number (number system).
Citing In Text:
Example with one author:
(Name-Year system). Methane was found by Smith (1996) to be effective. Methane was found to be effective (Smith 1996).
(Number System) Methane was found by Smith to be effective 12 or (12). Methane was found to be effective. 12 or (12) (use superscript or parentheses for number)
Example with two authors:
(Name-Year system) Methane was found by Smith and Jones (1996) to be effective. Methane was found to be effective (Smith and Jones 1996).
(Number system) Methane was found by Smith and Jones to be effective 13 or (13). Methane was found to be effective 13 or (13).
Literature Cited page
Only the sources that have been cited in the paper are listed here. You do not include copies of your sources with your paper. List sources in sequence used in paper or in alphabetical order by first author’s last name. If you have more than one article by the same author, put the articles in chronological order with the earliest first. Usually begin the first line of first entry at the left margin and then indent the rest of the reference 5 spaces.
Order for journal articles: Author(s). Year of Publication. Title of Paper. Journal Title(no. ) Volume Number: Pages.
Example of primary source with single author:
Smith, IR. 1996. Serotonin turnover in raphe neurons transplanted into rat hippocampus. N Engl J. Med 330:874-8.
12. Smith, IR. 1996. Serotonin turnover in raphe neurons transplanted into rat hippocampus. N Engl J. Med 330:874-8.
Example with no author given:
[Anonymous]. 1976. Epidemiology for primary health care. Int J. Epidemiol 5:224-5. Citation in text: (Anonymous 1976)
2. [Anonymous]. 1976. Epidemiology for primary health care. Int J. Epidemiol 5:224-5. Citation in text: (Anonymous 1976)
Order for books: Author(s). Year. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Pages in book.
Example for book:
Voet D, Smith JG. 1990. Biochemistry. New York: J Wiley. 1223 p. Citation in text: (Voet and Smith 1990)
15. Voet D, Smith JG. 1990. Biochemistry. New York: J Wiley. 1223 p. Citation in text: (Voet and Smith 1990)
Example for book with editors:
Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, editors. 1990. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. 1180 p.
9. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, editors. 1990. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. 1180 p.
Referencing Electronic Sources
Include any information that would help someone access the original source: the author and title of the work, publisher (if applicable, date of publication, and document or page numbers (if provided). Also include Internet address and date of access.
Basic forms: Author/editor. Year. Title (edition). Publisher. [Type of medium, i.e.CD-ROM or online], Volume: Paging or indicator of length. Available: Address [access date].
Clark JK. 1994. Complications in academia: Sexual harassment and the law. [Online] 2:3 paragraphs. Available: http://www.cac.psu.edu/jeb/twocont.html [June 21, 1995].
8. Clark, JK. 1994. Complications in academia: Sexual harassment and the law. [Online] 2:3 paragraphs. Available: http://www.cac.psu.edu/jeb/twocont.html [June 21, 1995].
If author is not available put [Anonymous]. Leave out what is not supplied. Write (no date) when the electronic publication date is not available. Example:
[Anonymous] (no date). Transgenic potatoes as a source of vaccines. [Online] 6-10. Available: http://www. cac.texasam.edu/tebsu.html [January 2, 1997].
Always italicize or underline (be consistent)
Capitalize Genus, not species
You may abbreviate the genus name after the first reference: Staphylococcus aureus becomes S. aureus.
Do not put articles (the, a, an) immediately before a scientific name
Genera names can be used alone if you are referring collectively (Some species of Staphylococcus grow . . .)
Taxonomic groups or taxa above the genus level are capitalized but not italicized or underlined: the Chilopoda (centipedes), Animalia, Chordata, Osteichthyes.
Some taxa names have been modified to become common names. Do not capitalize these.Example: lycopsids from Lycopsida; dipterans from Diptera.
How to use citations and references in your paper
Example below is from an introduction in a previous paper.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged worldwide as an important nosocomial pathogen. In some U.S. hospitals, MRSA already accounts for 30% to 50% of all nosocomial S. aureus isolates. The situation is comparable in many European centers: according to a recent survey (1), the proportion of MRSA compared to all nosocomial S. aureus isolates studied was >50% in Portugal and Italy and >30% in Turkey and Greece. The methicillin-resistance rate was low (2.0%) in the Netherlands, calling attention to the distinguished Dutch MRSA strategy (2). Switzerland, which had the lowest MRSA prevalence (1.8%) in the European survey (1), is noted for innovative interventions to improve hand hygiene in hospitals and, thereby, to reduce MRSA transmission (3).
Diekema DJ, Pfaller MA, Schmitz FJ, Smayevsky J, Bell J, Jones RN, et al. Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific Region for the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1997ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“1999. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32(Suppl 2):114ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“32.
Verhoef J, Beaujean D, Blok H, Baars A, Meyler A, van der Werken C, et al. A Dutch approach to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999;18:461ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“6.
Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, Mourouga P, Sauvan V, Touveneau S, et al. Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Lancet 2000;356:130
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