Describe the principle of ELISAs used in the clinical practice to detect HIV antigens in blood from infected individuals.

This HIV ELISA test was carried out to screen 8 women who had unprotected sex with a HIV-positive man. Patient 1 had last unprotected sex with the man 18 months before the test, P2 was 10 months, P3 & P4 was 7 months, P5 and P6 was two months, P7 was 3 months and P8 was 1 month before. Answer the following questions – If HIV-seropositivity is detected, what additional tests should be done? List three tests and describe their principle (worth 30 marks). 2. If any of the patients is HIV-seronegative, discuss what should be done with them? (20 marks).
3. Describe the principle of ELISAs used in the clinical practice to detect HIV antigens in blood from infected individuals. Discuss the diagnostic reasons for using ELISA detecting HIV antigens or ELISA detecting anti-HIV antibodies (20 marks).
4. Give examples of when blood may be added to the sensitivity testing medium. What effects might this have on the results obtained?
5. Explain antagonistic activity and one antibiotic combination (1 mark).

Please use as many references as possible.

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