Do you agree or disagree with their explanations?

Research Paper;

You are required to write a short paper of 3000 words. The paper should critically discuss the academic debate over studying International Law and Organisations, a specific case study, or any other topic related to the course. The paper should answer three key questions:
1. How have scholars studied the topic? “NATO and Libya”
2. Do you agree or disagree with their explanations? NATO failed to move the country to a saver and better situation.
3. And Why? List at least 5 reasons

The topic of your paper should be discussed and approved by the instructor.
The papers should be focused, analytical and well-documented. They should avoid jargon and to be written in an academic language. In-text citation should follow Author-Date style (i.e. Larsen 2000: 24). Bibliography/references should follow Chicago Manuel of Style which can be checked at this link

Title of the Paper:

NATO and Libya

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) operations in Libya were a matter of disputes at all levels four years ago. Since then, many of reports have been issued trying to address and analyse the nature of such intervention by NATO. Un clarity and ambiguity of Libyan future in that time, after Colonel Muammar Al-Gaddafi era in the country, had make the situation more complicated. UN 1973 resolution against the Muammar Al-Gaddafi regime in 2011 in order to save the civilians from the threat of the colonel government. NATO began the air strikes and Muammar Al-Gaddafi has been killed in a tragedy scenario in 2011 but up to date, the Libyans are suffering and the conflicts have not been solved. Number of jihadist groups such as ISIS are starting their operations on the ground and making the country in a tough condition. Because of that many politicians and researchers are debating that, to what extend was the NATO intervention in Libya successfully shifting the country to a safer situation.
This paper is going to cover number of points. Starting from “NATO and its mission in conflict zones” to “Libyan crises in 2011”, followed by “NATO operations in Libya”. Then, the paper will analyse the “legality of NATO intervention in this crises”. After that, the paper will provide macro view of the country after the NATO. Finally, it will cover the lessons which have been taken from the Libyan crises.

Main Points to be listed, discussed and analysed in the Paper:

• NATO and its mission in Conflict Zones

Give an introduction about NATO interventions and operations in the conflicts area around the world, their missions, with an examples of Kosovo (Kosovo and NATO) and Afghanistan (Afghanistan and NATO) and to what extent NATO operations there have been succeeded. Very important to talk about UN and International law regarding such interventions.

• 450 words.
• Four references.

• Libya Crises in 2011
Analyse the mentioned crises from where and when it start in 2011. Mention what called Arab spring. Also mention the nature of Libyans/ civilians requirements from Libyan government in that time. And why they were protest against ‘Muammar Al-Gaddafi’. No of civilians have been killed and injured in this crises. Analyse the situation and what could be the right way to solve the crises internally without any external interventions.
• 500 words.
• Four references.

• NATO Operations in Libya
When and why NATO decide to take an action in Libya. Their (NATO) targets, plans and the nature of such operations, and period. Talk about Security Council resolution (UN 1973 resolution) and how this resolution has been issued. The point of view must be negative about this as there is no clear plan has been set after NATO remove ‘Muammar Al-Gaddafi’’. And talk about the researcher and politicians’ point of view with this regard.
• 500 words.
• Four references.

• Legality of the Operations
Answer these questions:
Is it legal? Your answer must be based in your research and references.
Is United Nation has taken their responsibilities in good and right way?
Is “United Nation responsibility to protect” concept has been set properly?
Is NATO violate international humanitarian law?
• 550 words.
• Four references.

• Libya after NATO
Describe the Libya situation after NATO intervention from 2012 till today and how the terrorist groups like ISIS (Islamic State) are playing in the ground nowadays and how the civilians are suffering. Your point of view must support the point that NATO intervention and removing “Muammar Al-Gaddafi’’ was big mistake as terrorist groups take their place. Give 5 reasons why it was big mistake from your research and references. The drawbacks of NATO operations in Libya.
• 450 words.
• Four references.

• Lessons from Libyan Crises
From your research and references list four lessons from this crises and how United Nation and Security Council and NATO as well could avoid such mistakes in future.
• 550 words.
• Four references.


At least 24 academic references (books, Journals and others) , and have to take the below listed references:

Anne Applebaum, ‘NATO’s Last Mission?’,Washington Post, 12 April 2011; Fred Kaplan, ‘NATO’s Last Mission?’,Slate, 14 April 2011; Steven Metz, ‘Swan Song: Is Libya the end of NATO?’, New Republic, 15 April 2011.

Anand Menon, ‘European Defence Policy from Lisbon to Libya’, Survival (Vol. 53, No. 3, 2011), pp. 75–90; Patrick Wintour, ‘NATO Must Remain Key Defender of Europe, Says Liam Fox’, Guardian, 5 October 2011.

Julian E Barnes, ‘Defense Chief Hails Success of NATO’s Libya Campaign’, Wall Street Journal, 8 October 2011.

David Abshire, ‘NATO Makes the Grade in Libya’,, 26 August 2011; Paul Richter, ‘As NATO Scales Back in Libya, Pressure Mounts to End War Soon’, Los Angeles Times, 20 August 2011; Flavia Krause-Jackson and Patrick Donahue, ‘NATO Allies Open to Possibility Qaddafi Could Stay in Libya’, Bloomberg, 22 July 2011.

James Joyner, ‘Back in the Saddle: How Libya Helped NATO Get Its Groove Back’,, 15 April 2011; Stanley Sloan, ‘NATO After Libya’, New Atlanticist, 31 March 2011.

Dave Majumdar, ‘AFRICOM: US Aircraft Still Flying Libya Missions’,, 30 June 2011.

David Brunnstrom, ‘NATO Says US Contribution Essential in Libya’, Reuters, 21 June 2011.

Samia Nakhoul, ‘Special Report: The Secret Plan to Take Tripoli’, Reuters, 6 September 2011.

Associated Press, ‘“Dim, if not Dismal Future”: Gates Blasts NATO’, 6 October 2011.

Robert M Gates, ‘The Future of NATO’, speech delivered at the Security and Defense Agenda, Brussels, 10 June 2011.

Rasmussen Reports, ‘Only 49% Think U.S. Still Needs to Belong to NATO’, 14 June 2011.

Jens Ringsmose and Sten Rynning (eds.), ‘NATO’s New Strategic Concept: A Comprehensive Assessment’, Danish Institute for International Studies Report, 2011, pp. 2, 8.

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