What else could you have done to even understand the question even more fully?

Research Project – Week Four

You will receive feedback on the previous week’s assignment by Sunday 11:59pm. Before you complete your Week Four assignment, please read your instructor’s comments about your Week Three assignment, as well as this week’s lecture. Be sure to include any suggested changes in your project going forward.

In a five- to six-page paper (not including the title and reference pages), include the following:

  1. A revised version of your introduction, research question, background research, hypothesis, research design, sampling plan, secondary data plan (if applicable), and measurement scales (if applicable).  These revisions must be based on your instructor’s feedback if your instructor provided comments about these sections in Week Three.
  2. Your plans for using observations, focus groups, interviews, or surveys, if applicable. This should include your draft version of the questions you will ask your participants. If observations or surveys would not be useful in your study, please explain why not.
  3. A reference list documented in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Your paper must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.


Discussion 1 Rolf Halthen 12/9/2015 7:57:29 PM

The data collection methods utilized by Ball and Nicolle (2015) were focus groups, critical incident technique, and interviews to collect data for their quantitative study on mobility concerns among the visually impaired. The interview techniques utilized face-to-face, telephone and email interviews (Ball & Nicolle, 2015). Ball & Nicolle (2015) indicated that most of their data came from analyzing discussion forums since it was difficult to receive interview feedback from participants without asking specific questions. In my estimation, the researchers utilized ideal data collection methods for the purpose of identifying the underlying issues in an unbiased manner.

Ball and Nicolle (2015) used the domain analysis approach for categorizing the data they received on mobility concerns among the visually impaired. Specifically, they were able to develop categories and properties through evaluating the various data points (Ball & Nicolle, 2015). The researchers were able to revise these categories throughout the process as more data was analyzed, avoiding any preconceived frameworks (Ball & Nicolle, 2015). This is an ideal method for evaluating large amounts of data. Additionally, this area of research is undeveloped, dictating the need to analyze the data in an unbiased method for the purpose of generating a hypothesis. After formulating a hypothesis, it would be possible to use a quantitative method to confirm or invalidate the hypothesis. I believe the data analysis method was ideal for evaluating this type of qualitative data.


Ball, E. M., & Nicolle, C. A. (2015). Changing What It Means to Be “Normal”: A Grounded Theory Study of the Mobility Choices of People Who Are Blind or Have Low Vision. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 109(4), 291. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=c49d8347-3dc2-4982-b00f-29e64ce362fb%40sessionmgr4001&vid=10&hid=4105

(an instructor response)
RE: Discussion 1 Dr. Jon Webber 12/10/2015 8:42:57 AM
Eric, you meant QUALITATIVE here instead of quantitative, right (“and interviews to collect data for their quantitative study on mobility concerns”)? The title of the article tells us this was a qualitative study so you are on track, for sure. Could you fill in the gaps here to help us delineate this as qualitative for those you might have missed the Landrum particulars? Let’s keep this conversation going because these methods are all qualitative. I love qualitative studies!
Qualitative Analysis Stephanie Lomax 12/10/2015 7:26:12 PM

Through our text,” naturalistic observation tends to fall into the category of qualitative research, and the goal of qualitative research is to understand human behavior holistically (rather than analytically)” (Landrum, 2014). One recent study that was done was on females going through Ranger School with the United States Army. This was study conducted to determine if females would be able to endure and make it through the challenges that a male soldier goes through to become a ranger based of the Department of the Defense. This is qualitative data as it shows the individual interviews of the females and males who were going through the course together, focus groups based on evaluations and performance reviews from the trainers at the school, along with plenty of observations and action research of being able to watch these females go through the course. The likely hood of a female graduating from this school is slim now only because not as many females started the course as the males and still plenty of males did not make it through the courses as well. With the research, nineteen female and 381 male soldiers started Ranger School of which only two females along with 88 males graduated from. That means that over two-thirds of the course was a No-Go. This data that was gathered now has allowed more combat operations and positions to be open to females serving in numerous combat billets. Qualitative data has now shown the Department of Defense that females can endure the same hardship and challenges as their male counterparts.

The data that is collected from these females in Ranger school is data that can be considered both discrete and continuous. Discrete that data will stay the way it is for that graduation class that occurred but continuous that other females may graduate from the course. It can keep going on until it is shut down but as for now, the data can continue on and possibly have different adverse actions later.



Landrum, E. (2014).  Research Methods for Business: Tools and Applications.  San Diego, CA:Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Tan, M. (2015) Army Time: First female Ranger grads share credit with classmates. Retrieved from http://www.armytimes.com/story/military/2015/08/20/first-female-ranger-grads-share-credit-classmates/32079657/

RE: Qualitative Analysis Nicole Thompson 12/11/2015 11:59:41 AM

What an interesting topic. I have always followed things like this in a brief manner, being prior service myself. There are different studies if you will pertaining to females assuming the roles traditionally held by their male counter parts, and of course of the women who want to perform those functions, only a slight fraction of them make it through the process to do so. They have recently allowed women on submarines, and a few years back a female soldier finally was allowed to shift and perform changing of the guards to guard the ‘Tomb of the Unknown Soldier’. Though qualitative data and time has shown us that females indeed can do the same things men can, quantitative says at a much lesser rate sometimes than their male counterparts in male dominated or traditional- areas. Great post! Thank you for sharing.





Dog Park Behavior Nicole Thompson 12/9/2015 9:22:41 AM
I had taken my dog to a dog park around 10 a.m.yesterday, I have a small yorkie and there are normally quite a few people out with their dogs as well. There were about 10-15 other dog owners, in which the majority owned much larger dogs than my own and there may have been 4 to 5 small/medium dogs as well. Though all owners who use dog parks understand that they are allowed to let their dogs free at their own risk, as all dogs temperaments are different; and dogs also do not know how big or small they are or if they’ll actually get along with another dog.

My question was “How comfortable are owners of larger dogs, with allowing them to be in the same open area for play with smaller dogs?” What I noticed, depending on the owner and their confidence in their training and control of their own dog, had no issue allowing their dog, who may have been anywhere from 15-50 pounds heavier than my own dog to run free and play with. Their control over their dog was very impressive, they simply payed attention and had sound (name call) or signal for their dog when they felt they were being too rough and the dog immediately stopped and became much more gentle. Those who did not have this level of control or were not so sure of their own dogs mood, would almost immediately take their dogs into another gated area or ask another owner to hold on letting their smaller dog loose, while they leashed their dog to be moved. In essence, owners who have trained their dogs properly, know there is no reason any dog cannot play with other dogs; however, if the owner has not or does not have control over their dog, there could be a problem resulting in harm to someone else’s dog, and they would rather not risk it.

(an instructor response)
RE: Dog Park Behavior Dr. Jon Webber 12/10/2015 8:48:14 AM
Nicole, this is an example of a fun and practical way to get the feel of observational research. Landrum tells us we can do it just like you did or used Closed Caption TV (CCT) methods to observe what other people are doing. A company might do this by setting up microphones and cameras to observe the flow of traffic into and out of a store or how much time servers are spending with the customer vs. socializing. The day at the dog park (I love Yorkies by the way) was a valuable tool to see the application here. What else could you have done to even understand the question even more fully?


Discussion 2 Rolf Halthen 12/9/2015 7:52:59 PM

At 7:00 PM on a weekday, I went to the gym with the question: “How do people interact with each other?”.  In the span of 15 minutes, there were only four other people in the gym. Of the group of four, it was obvious that two were a couple and the other two guys knew each other and came to the gym to work out together.

It was apparent that people avoided interaction unless they had some form of previous relationship. Eye contact was never made between groups, unless absolutely necessary. Additionally, the woman had either a magazine or phone conversation taking place while performing her exercise making it less inviting to interact with her. The couple only had one interaction with each other take place in the entire span of time. The two men were much more interactive, not only in conversation but also in assisting with exercises. They were clearly there to partner with different work outs. The couple performed very different types of work outs and were not there to partner in any way. In summary, I observed that interactions were avoided among people who were not previously acquainted.

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