1.Briefly explain the following disorders: urethritis, cystitis, and pyelonephritis.
2.Name the three hormones that regulate urine volume. State where each is made and the specific effect each has on urine volume.
3.If a person were doing strenuous work on a hot day and perspiring heavily, would there be a great deal of ADH in the blood or very little? Explain your answer.
4.What factors influence the percentage of water in the body? Explain the effect of each factor.
5.Explain the relationship between pH and the relative concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a solution.
6.Explain how excessive vomiting causes metabolic alkalosis and explain why normal saline can be used to correct it.
PART II: Case Study
Directions: Please answer each of the case study questions below. Ensure that your responses are detailed and that each response is at least one half of a page to one page in length. Please use proper APA format. If necessary, please cite any sources. You may also utilize LIRN for your research. Please visit the Academic Resource Center (ARC) for concise APA and LIRN guidelines.
1.A patient has been having pain in the back and groin, renal colic, reduced urine output, and painful voiding. The physician orders a urinalysis. Crystalline substances and some blood cells are observed in the urine on microscopic analysis. On the basis of the results of an ultrasound examination, the physician recommends lithotripsy. What do you suspect might be wrong with the patient? What further diagnostic techniques do you think might be ordered?
2.The body must maintain fairly constant fluid levels to remain healthy. What mechanism does the body use to accomplish this?
3.Josie is in her second trimester of pregnancy and has been vomiting constantly for several days. On the advice of her physician, Josie is admitted to the hospital, where she receives intravenous administrations of normal saline solution. Why?
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