The abstract is the section of the report. It is written to summarize the
purposes, findings, and recommendations included in the report.
General considerations. The abstract should be written in the past tense;
informative, not descriptive; not more than 250 words The first line of the abstract begins at the
far left margin. Do not indent. The abstract is one single paragraph. It should be
written in the following order:
1. Nature of the problem is stated.
2. Premise of the study is stated.
3. Procedures are summarized.
4. Results are summarized.
5. Conclusions are summarized.
6. Recommendations are summarized.
Describe the situation your research will explore. It should begin with a broad
general description of the industry, organization involved, culture, the
environment, or other issues to be explored. The middle section of the analysis
should narrow to the specific subject you wish to explore. The final section of the
analysis should focus on why the specific details of your topic should be
The situation analysis should be written in the present
tense and should be completed by the second week of class.
Present a positive paragraph on what you propose to substantiate by the
completion of research. It should be a natural outflow of the justification
provided in the situation analysis for your research.
General considerations. The Premise should be written in the future tense and
should be completed by the second week of class. This must be approved before
any Primary Research starts.
There should be between four and twelve problem statements or hypotheses.
Contained in them should be at least one that is primarily addressed by secondary
research and one addressed by primary research. Research students should gain
knowledge and skills in how to find and use related information from studies that
apply to the premise. The hypothesis testing or primary research should give the
research student experience and understanding as to the facts that are measurable
and will produce results from which conclusions can be reached.
General considerations. These should be approved by the instructor and
completed by the second week of class. Remember, the more problem statements,
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the longer the paper.
Terms in the integrated studies paper that are specific to the content must be
defined. This includes all technical terms, legal terms, descriptive subject terms,
and any other terms that your instructor for the course would need to be familiar
with. (Example: Human relations training will improve productivity. The
definitions in this statement should explain what is meant by productivity,
improved, and human relations training.)
General considerations. Definitions should be turned in with the premise
Because the student realistically can deal with only limited variables, there
should be statements of other variables not entertained in the study, which could
distort results or findings. (Example: The impact of unexpected massive layoffs.)
General considerations. Study limitations should be written in the past tense, and
should be completed by the second week of class.
Applied Research Methodology
This section tells what research methodology was used in the conduct of the
study and reflects both Primary and Secondary Research. This description should
allow officials of the organization under study and instructor to evaluate the
appropriateness of the method and the reliability and validity of results. This
section should be detailed enough to allow an experienced researcher to replicate
the study. This section often has three subsections labeled participants, apparatus,
and procedure. Specific details concerning these subsections can be found in the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition (or
Literature Review and Findings
In this section the student logically presents all actions and considerations of the
study. This section would usually begin with a transitional phrase from the final
statement in the situational analysis section. Consideration of other studies and
findings should be reflected in this section. Significant findings from the
literature review should be logically reflected in this section. When reflecting on
this material the student should do so in the historic present tense. It is essential
that all findings in the study be accurately reported in this section. It should be
stated in enough depth and detail that another researcher can review the findings
and draw their own conclusions. Presentation of data summary information and
statistical outcomes should be reported in this section. Raw tables in general
should be presented in the appendices.
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The literature review and findings should be from 20 to 30 pages in length, reflected in the past tense.
The conclusions section is reported in the past tense, and
should be completed by the eighth week of class.
The information reflected in the Conclusions section is compared to the Premise
and described in this section. Students should understand that good research may
disprove the original Premise and not be discouraged if this happens.
General considerations. The Premise Assessment should be written in the past
tense and should be completed by the eighth week of class.
Recommendations for Future Studies
As students complete their research they usually identify other areas or
considerations for study. These are to be reflected in this section.
General considerations. This section should be reflected in future tense and
should be completed by the eighth week of class.
Recommendations for the Unit Studied
This section is the appropriate place to present implementation of findings. Here
the research student has the opportunity to explain how improvement in the
current organization can be implemented and what positive outcomes should be
General Considerations. This section is reflected in the future tense and should be
completed by the eighth week of class.
References should be complete and reflected as outlined in the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition (or later).
Sources listed in the references should be only those used for documentation of
sources in the content of the research paper.
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